Grade 12

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World History: The West and the World 12 (CHY4U) – Elective
This course investigates the major trends in Western civilization and world history from the sixteenth century to the present. Students will learn about the interaction between the emerging West and other regions of the world and about the development of modern social, political, and economic systems. They will use critical-thinking and communication skills to investigate the historical roots of contemporary issues and present their conclusions.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11/12 University or University/College course in Canadian and World Studies, English, or Social Sciences and Humanities

AP World History and AP European History
This course is offered to those students interested in advanced studies in the field of history. An extra time commitment will be necessary.

Analyzing Current Economic Issues 12 (CIA4U) – Elective
This course investigates the nature of the competitive global economy and explores how individuals and societies can gain the information they need to make appropriate economic decisions. Students will learn about the principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics, apply economic models and concepts to interpret economic information, assess the validity of statistics, and investigate marketplace dynamics. Students will use economic inquiry and communication skills to analyze current economic issues, make informed judgments, and present their findings.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11/12 University or University/College course in Canadian and World Studies, English, or Social Sciences and Humanities

AP Economics
This course is offered to those students interested in advanced studies in the field of Economics. An extra time commitment will be necessary.

Classical Civilization, Grade 12 (LVV4U) – Elective
This course allows students to explore the beliefs and achievements of the classical world which have shaped Western thought and civilization. Students will investigate such aspects of classical culture as its mythology, art, literature, and philosophy, as well as elements of ancient Greek and Latin, through a variety of activities such as dramatizations, audio-visual presentations and discussions. By reading classical authors in English and examining archaeological evidence, students will enhance both their communication skills and their ability to think critically and creatively.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 10, Academic or Applied

Canadian and World Issues: A Geographic Analysis 12 (CGW4U) – Elective
This course draws on geographic concepts, skills, methods and technologies to analyze significant issues facing Canadian citizens of an interdependent world. Students will examine the challenges of creating a sustainable and equitable future through the study of a range of topics, including economic interdependence, geographical conflict, regional disparities in the ability to meet basic human needs and protection of the planet’s life-support systems.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11/12 university or university/college course in Canadian and world studies, English or social sciences and humanities

Canadian and International Law 12 (CLN4U) – Elective
This course examines elements of Canadian and international law in social, political , and global contexts . Students will study the historical and philosophical sources of law and the principles and practices of international law and will learn to relate them to issues in Canadian society and the wider world. Students will use critical-thinking and communication skills to analyze legal issues, conduct independent research, and present the results of their inquiries in a variety of ways.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11/12 University or University/College course in Canadian and World Studies, English, or Social Sciences and Humanities

Canadian and World Politics 12 (CPW4U) – Elective
This course examines Canadian and world politics from a variety of perspectives. Students will investigate the ways in which individuals, groups, and states work to influence domestic and world events, the role of political ideologies in national and international politics, and the dynamics of international cooperation and conflict resolution. Students will apply critical thinking and communication skills to develop and support informed opinions about current political conflicts, events, and issues.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11/12 University or University/College course in Canadian and World Studies, English, or Social Sciences and Humanities

Philosophy: Questions and Theories 12 (HZT4U) – Elective
This course enables students to acquire an understanding of the nature of philosophy and philosophical reasoning skills and to develop and apply their knowledge and skills while exploring specialized branches of philosophy (the course will cover at least three of the following branches: metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, philosophy of science, social and political philosophy, aesthetics).∗ Students will develop critical thinking and philosophical reasoning skills as they formulate and evaluate arguments related to a variety of philosophical questions and theories. They will also develop research and inquiry skills related to the study and practice of philosophy.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11/12 University or University/College course in Social Sciences and Humanities, English, or Canadian and World Studies.

Challenge and Change in Society (HSB4U) – Elective
This course focuses on the use of social science theories, perspectives, and methodologies to investigate and explain shifts in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour and their impact on society. Students will critically analyse how and why cultural, social, and behavioural patterns change over time. They will explore the ideas of social theorists and use those ideas to analyse causes of and responses to challenges such as technological change, deviance, and global inequalities. Students will explore ways in which social science research methods can be used to study social change.

Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

Calculus and Vectors (MCV4U)
This course builds on students’ previous experience with functions and their developing understanding of rates of change. Students will solve problems involving geometric and algebraic representations of vectors and representations of lines and planes in three dimensional space; broaden their understanding of rates of change to include the derivatives of polynomial, sinusoidal, exponential, rational, and radical functions; and apply these concepts and skills to the modelling of real-world relationships. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended for students who choose to pursue careers in fields such as science, engineering, economics, and some areas of business, including those students who will be required to take a university-level calculus, linear algebra, or physics course.
Note: The new Advanced Functions course (MHF4U) MUST be taken prior to or concurrently with Calculus and Vectors (MCV4U).

AP Calculus
This stand-alone course is offered to the advanced mathematics student who intends to pursue higher learning in mathematics, engineering or a related field.

Advanced Functions, Grade 12 (MHF4U)
This course extends students’ experience with functions. Students will investigate the properties of polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; develop techniques for combining functions; broaden their understanding of rates of change; and develop facility in applying these concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended both for students taking the Calculus and Vectors course as a prerequisite for a university program and for those wishing to consolidate their understanding of mathematics before proceeding to any one of a variety of university programs.
Prerequisite: Functions, Grade 11, University Preparation, or Mathematics for College Technology, Grade 12, College Preparation

Mathematics of Data Management, Grade 12 (MHF4U)
This course broadens students’ understanding of mathematics as it relates to managing data. Students will apply methods for organizing and analyzing large amounts of information; solve problems involving probability and statistics; and carry out a culminating investigation that integrates statistical concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. Students planning to enter university programs in business, the social sciences, and the humanities will find this course of particular interest.
Prerequisite: Functions, Grade 11, University Preparation, or Functions and Applications,
Grade 11, University/College Preparation

Biology 12 (SBI4U) – Elective
This course provides students with the opportunity for in-depth study of the concepts and processes that occur in biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biochemistry, metabolic processes, molecular genetics, homeostasis, and population dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the achievement of detailed knowledge and the refinement of skills needed for further study in various branches of the life sciences and related fields.
Prerequisite: Biology, Grade 11, University Preparation

AP Biology 12
This course is offered to those students who want a strong background in biology for future endeavors. An additional time commitment will be necessary.

Chemistry 12 (SCH4U) – Elective
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of organic chemistry, the structure and properties of matter, energy changes and rates of reaction, equilibrium in chemical systems, and electrochemistry. Students will further develop their problem-solving and investigation skills as they investigate chemical processes, and will refine their ability to communicate scientific information. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of chemistry in everyday life and on evaluating the impact of chemical technology on the environment.
Prerequisite: Chemistry, Grade 11, University Preparation

AP Chemistry 12
This course is offered to those students who want a strong background in chemistry for future endeavors. An additional time commitment will be necessary.

Physics 12 (SPH4U) – Elective
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of physics concepts and theories. Students will continue their exploration of energy transformations and the forces that affect motion, and will investigate electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. Students will also explore the wave nature of light, quantum mechanics, and special relativity. They will further develop their scientific investigation skills, learning, for example, how to analyse, qualitatively and quantitatively, data related to a variety of physics concepts and principles. Students will also consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment.
Prerequisite: Physics, Grade 11, University Preparation

AP Physics 12
This course is offered to those students who want a strong background in physics for future endeavors. An additional time commitment will be necessary.

Earth and Space Science 12 (SES4U) – Elective
This course develops students’ understanding of Earth and its place in the universe. Students will investigate the properties of and forces in the universe and solar system and analyse techniques scientists use to generate knowledge about them. Students will closely examine the materials of Earth, its internal and surficial processes, and its geological history, and will learn how Earth’s systems interact and how they have changed over time. Throughout the course, students will learn how these forces, processes, and materials affect their daily lives. The course draws on biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics in its consideration of geological and astronomical processes that can be observed directly or inferred from other evidence.
Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic

Core French 12 (FSF4U) – Elective
This course draws on a variety of themes to promote extensive development of French-language skills. Students will consolidate their oral skills as they discuss literature, culture, and current issues. They will read a variety of texts and will write a formal essay. The use of correct grammar and appropriate language conventions in both spoken and written French will be emphasized throughout the course.
Prerequisite: Core French, Grade 11 University (FSF3U)

AP French
This course is open to academically proficient Grade 12 French students. An extra time commitment is required.

Spanish Level 4 (LWSDU) – Elective
This course prepares students for university studies in Spanish. Students will enhance their ability to use the language with clarity and precision, and will develop the language skills needed to engage in sustained conversations and discussions, understand and evaluate information, read diverse materials for both study and pleasure, and write clearly and effectively. Students will also have opportunities to add to their knowledge of the culture of countries where Spanish is spoken, through the use of community resources and computer technology.
Prerequisite: Spanish, Level 3, University Level (LWSCU)

Computer Science 12 (ICS4U) – Elective
This course helps students use programming and software engineering principles to design and develop algorithms and programs. Students will use software development and diagnostic tools, implement data structures and algorithms, and use file management techniques in project settings. They will also develop an understanding of the ethics of computer use and the impact of information technology on the community, and will explore postsecondary education and career paths in computer science.
Prerequisite: Computer and Information Science, Grade 11, University/College (ICS3U)

AP Computers
This course is offered to the advanced computer science student who intends to pursue higher learning in computers or a related field. An extra time commitment is required.

English, Grade 12, University Preparation (ENG4U) – Compulsory
This course emphasizes the consolidation of the literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyse a range of challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures; interpret and evaluate informational and graphic texts; and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on using academic language coherently and confidently, selecting the reading strategies best suited to particular texts and particular purposes for reading, and developing greater control in writing. The course is intended to prepare students for university, college, or the workplace.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 11, University Preparation (ENG3U)

AP English Literature and Composition
This course is open to academically proficient Grade 12 students. It is an enriched study of literature of various periods and genres. An extra time commitment will be necessary.

English: Studies in Literature 12 (ETS4U) – Elective
This course is for students with a special interest in literature and literary criticism. The course may focus on themes, genres, time periods, or countries. Students will analyze a range of forms and stylistic elements of literary texts and respond personally, critically, and creatively to them. They will also assess critical interpretations, write analytical essays, and complete an independent study project.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 11 University Preparation (ENG3U)

The Writer’s Craft 12 (EWC4U) – Elective
This course emphasizes knowledge and skills related to the craft of writing. Students will analyze models of effective writing; use a workshop approach to produce a range of works; identify and use techniques required for specialized forms of writing; and identify effective ways to improve the quality of their writing. They will also complete a major paper as part of a creative or analytical independent study project and investigate opportunities for publication and for writing careers.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 11 University Preparation (ENG3U)

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Course, Grade 12 (OSSLC) – Elective
This course is designed to help students acquire and demonstrate the cross-curricular literacy skills that are evaluated by the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT). Students who complete the course successfully will meet the provincial literacy requirement for graduation. Students will read a variety of informational, narrative, and graphic texts and will produce a variety of forms of writing, including summaries, information paragraphs, opinion pieces, and news reports. Students will also maintain and manage a portfolio containing a record of their reading experiences and samples of their writing.
Eligibility requirement: Students who have been eligible to write the OSSLT at least twice and who have been unsuccessful at least once are eligible to take the course. Also students that have moved from outside the province in grade 12 may take this course. (Students who have already met the literacy requirement for graduation may be eligible to take the course under special circumstances, at the discretion of the principal.)

Financial Accounting 12 (BAT4M) – Elective
This course introduces students to advanced accounting principles that will prepare them for postsecondary studies in business. Students will learn about financial statements for various forms of business ownership and how those statements are interpreted in making business decisions. This course expands students’ knowledge of sources of financing, further develops accounting methods for assets, and introduces accounting for partnerships and corporations.
Prerequisite: Financial Accounting Fundamentals, Grade 11, Univ/College Preparation (BAF3M)

International Business Fundamentals 12 (BBB4M) – Elective
This course provides an overview of the importance of international business and trade in the global economy and explores the factors that influence success in international markets. Students will learn about the techniques and strategies associated with marketing, distribution, and managing international business effectively

Business Leadership: Management Fundamentals 12 (BOH4M) – Elective
This course allows students to explore the roles, responsibilities, skills, and functions of management. Students will learn the factors that encourage effective leadership practices. Emphasis throughout the courses will be placed on the importance of ethics and social responsibility in the corporate world. Students will learn how to communicate effectively for business purposes. The courses in business leadership will prepare students to work effectively in organizations in positions of employment and management.
Prerequisite: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in business studies or Canadian and world studies

Exercise Science 12 (PSE4U) – Elective
This course focuses on the study of human movement and of systems, factors, and principles involved in human development. Students will learn about the effects of physical activity on health and performance, the evolution of physical activity and sports, and the factors that influence an individual’s participation in physical activity. The course prepares students for university programs in physical education, kinesiology, recreation, and sports administration.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11U or U/M course in Science, or 11/12 Open courses in Health & P.E.

Personal and Fitness Activities 12 (PAF4O) – Elective
This course focuses on the development of a personalized approach to healthy active living through participation in a variety of sports and recreational activities that have the potential to engage students’ interest throughout their lives. Students will develop and implement personal physical fitness plans. In addition, they will be given opportunities to refine their decision making, conflict-resolution, and interpersonal skills, with a view to enhancing their mental health and their relationships with others.

Dramatic 12 (ADA4M) – Elective
This course requires students to experiment individually and collaboratively with forms and conventions of both drama and theatre from various cultures and time periods. Students will interpret dramatic literature and other texts and media sources while learning about various theories of directing and acting. Students will examine the significance of dramatic arts in various cultures, and will analyse how the knowledge and skills developed in drama are related to their personal skills, social awareness, and goals beyond secondary school.
Prerequisite: Dramatic Arts, Grade 11 University/College (ADA3M)

Visual Arts 12 (AVI4M) – Elective
This course focuses on enabling students to refine their use of the creative process when creating and presenting two- and three-dimensional art works using a variety of traditional and emerging media and technologies. Students will use the critical analysis process to deconstruct art works and explore connections between art and society. The studio program enables students to explore a range of materials, processes, and techniques that can be applied in their own art production. Students will also make connections between various works of art in personal, contemporary, historical, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 11, University/College (AVI3M)

AP Visual Arts – Drawing & Studio 2-D Design
Drawing and painting is offered to those students interested in advanced studies in the field of visual art. An extra time commitment will be necessary. Studio 2-D Design is offered to those students interested in advanced studies in the field of visual art. An extra time commitment will be necessary.

Music 12 (AMU4M) – Elective
This course enables students to enhance their musical literacy through the creation, appreciation, analysis, and performance of music. Students will perform traditional, commercial, and art music, and will respond with insight to live and recorded performances. Students will enhance their understanding of the function of music in society and the impact of music on themselves and various communities and cultures. Students will analyse how to apply skills developed in music to their life and careers.
Prerequisite: Music, Grade 11 University/College (AMU3M)